Manufacturing Bacteriophages for Precision Medicine
Pathogenic Bacteria Turn Drug-Resistant at an Alarming Rate
By 2050, we project 10 million deaths per year caused by bacterial infections

UK Government (2015)
New superbug breaks through last line of antibiotic defense

Nature Microbiology (2018)
An alternative should be quality-assured, safe and effective

WHO (2015)

Phages Are the Natural Enemies of Bacteria

Phages are capable of specifically and reliably infecting and killing bacteria but are harmless to human cells. They can therefore be administered to patients as a cure for bacterial infections. This process is called:

Phage Therapy


Traditional Methods

...are unsafe for manufacturer and patient. Giant flasks of pathogenic bacteria are cultivated in order to isolate therapeutic bacteriophages.

How does Phactory work?

Next generation diagnostic systems like SHERLOCK can identify pathogens with high precision and accuracy. This enables rapid identification of an individualized therapeutic strategy even in the case of multiresistant superbugs. Using Phactory, we overcome the last remaining obstacles for efficient bacteriophage therapy.

Modular Phage Assembly

With a cell-free production system we utilize one of the most revolutionary concepts of synthetic biology to produce therapeutic bacteriophages. Based on personalized diagnostics, bacteriophage DNA is chosen from a library and subjected to extensive quality assessment procedures to ensure a safe and effective application.


Because our raw material is DNA, phage therapy based on well-defined phages is no longer a fantasy.



State of the art DNA sequencing tools are combined with bioinformatics to precisely determine the amount of contaminants in a sample.


high quality

The phage genome DNA is extensively purified, resulting in a high quality template with minimal contamination.


Synthetic Phage Manufacturing

Production of bacteriophages in a cell-free system ensures a fast and reliable application. Furthermore, working in a cell-free environment enables host independent production of phages in only 2.5% of the conventional production volume while demanding no biosafety regulations.


At less than $10 per treatment, Phactory allows for a highly competitive production price.



Manufacturing in Phactory can be scaled up for bulk production.



Phactory is an open system. This allows for the incorporation of modified proteins while leaving the genome unmodified, thereby achieving modularity without genetic modifications.



Host independence eliminates the need to cultivate pathogens to produce bacteriophages.

Quality Control

A thorough quality control structure assures that the produced bacteriophages are pure and effective. Risk of toxic contamination is eliminated.


Purity is essential for any therapeutic application. We use third generation sequencing to guarantee absence of DNA contamination in the manufacturing process.



Phactory assembles phages outside of living cells and is therefore free of most biological contaminants. We engineered the manufacturing system to reduce immunogenicity in humans by several orders of magnitude.



The phages assembled by Phactory are purified to remove any genetically modified material before leaving a controlled lab environment.



Bacteriophage therapy covers a broad range of potential applications. We engineered custom hardware to package bacteriophages for oral treatment. Our packaging procedure is the last step of a personalized on-site manufacturing process.

long shelf-life

Phactory and phages are fragile components. We combined various techniques to enable phage assembly outside of a lab.



We demonstrated lyophilization of Phactory components in order to enable long range transport.



Producing phages in Phactory is so simple that it allows any doctor to apply phage therapy on-site.


Our bacteriophages are now ready for therapy. Phactory is fast and reliable enough to be an oral bedside application.


We were able to produce genetically modified phages we received from the iGEM Team in Grenoble.


integrated human practice

We reached out to local doctors to demonstrate just how easy bacteriophage therapy using Phactory is and to gain valuable input for our project.



In cooperation with phage therapy pioneers in Belgium, we safely produced functional phages against EHEC – a deadly pathogen.


Human Practices

To get an overview of how serious antimicrobial resistance really is, we visited the hospital Rechts der Isar of the Technical University of Munich to meet Dr. Friedemann Gebhardt, the head of the hygiene department. Following his suggestions, we integrated storage protocols into Phactory.

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We set a timeline including the steps that have to be taken to further advance our project. Taking the disruptive potential of Phactory into account, we evaluated the penetrable market of Phactory. Parts of our project are patent-pending.

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Our application combines powerful bioinformatic algorithms with third generation sequencing techniques, allowing us to reach DNA purity levels of up to 96%.

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European Meetup

Munich 2018

One of the largest iGEM Events in Europe
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International speakers