Team:ZJUT-China/Human Practices

Team:ZJUT-China -

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Human Practice

Our project focuses on solving issues that are extremely relevant to human survival and development, so we must study the research objectives and adjustment plans of the project through communicating with stakeholders. Based on this, our project has an important value that can contribute to solve the problem of bacterial resistance.

Degrading resistance genes in the laboratory is a challenge, but developing molecular machines that degrade resistance genes in the real world is another more difficult challenge. We adjust our designs by meeting with experts and stakeholders to meet everyone's wishes as much as possible and to make our designs useful and responsible to society. Our process of integrating human practice can illustrate how our project are adapted and refined as human practice advances.

For example, we contacted Dr. Tang Biao of Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences and Director Xu Shengchen of the Environmental Protection Agency and interviewed them. We learned that our project was supported by the government. In addition, we conducted experiments on water samples taken from fisheries and obtained the types of resistance genes in the environment near the fishery. additionally, Director Zhang Wei of Huadong Pharmaceutical Factory made recommendations to our project, we adjusted our experimental schemes to enable the design of molecular machines to better adapt in society. Furthermore, we summarize how important changes of our project and interactions with stakeholders have produced impressive changes in our experiments and designs.

News& publications


From the news and publications, we have learned about the dangers of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which provide a direction for our project. We then look forward to study this global problem from the view of synthetic biology and then contribute to decrease of bacterial resistance.


In the antibiotic environment, some bacteria have been evolved into antibiotics genes and are named as "super bacteria." According to statistics, in the 1950s, when penicillin began to be used in clinical practice, each penicillin injection required only 200,000 units; in the 1990s, patients required 80-100 penicillin per injection. In 10,000 units, the dose increased to nearly 5 times.Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the earliest and most widely distributed superbacterium. According to the latest statistics from the World Health Organization, approximately 53 million people worldwide are infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus each year. The successful application of antibiotics to today's only seventy years, the problem of “super bacteria” has been widely distributed and affected. Antibiotic weapons are hard to have a major impact in this long-term arms race with bacteria. Therefore, our team hopes to utilized the synthetic biology tool to reduce the super bacteria.

Collecting water samples

in the field


China Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou Jianggan District Yanqiao Town Shuudun Village Farm

Questions for discussion:

Understand the normal use of antibiotics in aquaculture, as well as the levels of resistant bacteria in the nearby environment and the types of resistance genes they contain.


Originally, I wanted to determine which type of resistance gene appeared the most.

After the investigation, we roughly learned the resistance distribution in the local water .


We want to survey the content of resistant bacteria in the environment, so we went to the aquaculture farm to study the content of resistant bacteria in the aquaculture environment and the types of resistance genes contained in them. After investigation, we found that there are many common resistance genes in the discharge water. Degradation of a single specific resistance gene does not solve the problem of widespread resistance gene contamination. We believe that we can not only stay in the treatment environment, the most resistant genes should focus on larger problems and solve bacterial resistance problems. After our investigation, we found that drug-resistant bacteria are ubiquitous, and resistance gene contamination is a potential environmental threat. We want to solve this problem. For more information, see the results of the wet group; in addition, we collected water samples in the pond next to the farm, the river next to the farm, and the river next to the school. Click here to link our findings. Click here to link the results of our research.

Interview Director Fang


Director of pharmacy department of Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital


Provincial People's Hospital, Xiacheng district, Hangzhou, Zhejiang province, China

Topic for discussion:

Consultation antibiotic usage in hospitals

Discussion the seriousness of the problem of bacterial resistance

Learn about the limitation of resistance gene contamination treatment

The significance and purpose of the project are obtained


There are no radical solutions to bacterial resistance and resistance gene contamination, from which we can draw the specific background and significance of our project


The director believes that the treatment of resistant bacteria is necessary. Carrying out disease resistance gene research is a necessary and urgent requirement for evaluating the ecological risk of antibiotic resistance genes. After communicating with the Dean of the Provincial People's Hospital, we know that there are specific regulations on the use of antibiotics in China, but there is still no good solution to the existing bacterial resistance problem, which also provides a basis for our project. More intense desire and motivation.

Mr. Fang not only answered many difficult questions for us, but also brought us some new enlightenment: the preparation of standardized E. coli for various resistance genes, enabling the laboratory to eliminate the resistance genes in experimental bacteria by light or the like. This is conducive to the future development of wet group experiments and projects. Through this visit, we clarified that bacterial resistance is an urgent problem facing the world. Therefore, exploring new methods of antibiotic degradation and the use of biodegradation resistance genes is a hot and difficult point.


Questions for discussion:

The significance of the project and the general direction of experiment


Confirmed the significance and feasibility of our project

The general direction of the experiment and the direction of the project are determined


After determining that our goal was to address bacterial resistance issues, our team conducted a brainstorming session to determine our final project plan. After a lively discussion, we finally determined two directions: one is to build an engineering bacteria, you can choose to eliminate the resistance gene through the CRISPR / Cas9 system, so that you can remove the resistance gene before entering the environment; the other direction is to use the RNA switch The resistance gene is detected and the target resistance gene is designed in an E. coli environment by RNA transformation to express the reporter gene. After more in-depth consideration, we believe that the concentration of resistance genes in the environment may not be high, and the use of RNA switches to detect resistance genes is difficult to apply to actual production and life. Edit the efficiency of the CRISPR/Cas9 technology and establish a controllable genetically engineered strain with the ability to self-eliminate resistant genes. This meeting clarified the research significance of our project and determined the overall direction of our project.

Interview expert


Cheng Feng


Associate Professor of Microbiology


Bio-Building Zhejiang University of Technology

Questions for discussion:

Problems with the use of CRISPR technology

Light control device efficiency

The significance of project product investment


Learn about CRISPR technology and get technical support

Project products decided to use CRISPR technology

Light control device efficiency problem from iGEM2017


In the process of communicating with experts, we learned that bacterial resistance is a global problem. The most effective way to solve this problem is to eliminate bacterial resistance genes; the existing processing technology can only deal with some that have spread to the environment. The genetic contaminants cannot eliminate pollution sources from the roots, and gene editing techniques and the CRISPR/Cas9 system can help us solve this problem. So, after our discussion, we wanted to use the CRISPR/Cas9 technology with efficient gene editing efficiency and the design of the advanced igem team. The light control system constructs a controlled genetic engineering strain with the ability to self-eliminate resistance genes. Experts mentioned that resistance gene contamination mainly exists in industrial production, so the initial goal of our experiment is to reduce the emission of resistance genes into the factory. In addition, we expect an investment environment to address the resistance gene contamination in the environment, which will involve the work of our group to achieve true environmental protection.

Public questionnaire survey


internet、downtown of HangZhou


Understanding the public's perception of bacterial resistance


Determine the location of post-field research: hospital, pharmaceutical companies, animal husbandry.

We found that it is necessary for public to pay attention to the Bacterial resistance.

All the interviewers support our project and agree that our project has much valuable .


After determining the final protocol, we conducted a questionnaire survey of the public to understand the public's perception of bacterial resistance and antibiotic resistance gene contamination. Finally, we collected a total of 360 questionnaires. Through statistics and analysis, we can see that people are very eager to solve the problem of bacterial resistance and hope to solve the problem completely. Most people find that the efficacy of antibiotics is gradually declining. More and more bacteria are resistant and cannot be killed by common antibiotics. We understand that most super-resistant bacteria are produced in medical waste, wastewater discharge, pharmaceutical companies and laboratories. We will conduct research on hospitals, pharmaceutical companies, animal husbandry and research laboratories to study resistant bacteria, transmission, treatment and their hazards.

In addition, we learned from this survey that our project will be supported and accepted by the public, because our project can solve the problem of bacterial resistance from the source, and can also minimize the possibility of drug-resistant gene transmission. And pollution. Evaporation provides a possible and effective way to solve the problem of disease resistance gene pollution and protect the ecological environment.

Interview in Zhejiang

Academy of Agricultural



Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences


Tang Biao; PhD; research assistant

Questions for discussion:

Introducing our project, asking for some suggestions and data for project


Acquiring some data for modelling of dry group.

They gave support to our expectant product.

We will continue to pay attention to the treatment of multiple resistant bacteria.

We will go for discussion about diffusion of resistant gene with government sector.


Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences is a comprehensive public agricultural research institution directly under the People's Government of Zhejiang Province. We hope to advance our project by interviewing experts in the field of resistance research of the Academy of Agricultural Sciences. We communicated with Teacher Tang. Through communication with him, we learned that China does not have specific emission standards, policies, and laws for drug-resistant genes. He also reminded us that our plans can be gradually promoted while interviewing relevant legislative bodies, such as promoting the establishment of genetic emission resistance standards. . Teacher Tang Wei believes that it is necessary to fight resistant bacteria, especially multidrug-resistant bacteria. There are many resistance genes in multidrug resistant bacteria. So we introduced him to our project. He believes that if we can eliminate the resistance genes of engineered bacteria before discharge, then it is valuable to solve the problem of resistance gene contamination. For Dr. Tang Biao's professional research on resistance gene detection, he finally gave us some data that can be used for mathematical modeling. There is no doubt that this is a very powerful driving force for our project.

Visit Zhejiang

Environmental Protection



Director Shengchen Xu


Zhejiang provincial department of environmental protection

Questions for discussion:

Know about whether the government has control over resistance gene emissions.

Which institutions currently have the most resistance genes in the effluent and the surrounding soil.

We discussed about the feasibility and effectiveness of our project and hoped to obtain support from government.


The project is supported by the government, which proves that the project is beneficial to the world and responsible to the public.


We visited the environmental protection department of Zhejiang Province. Government officials from the environmental protection department welcomed us and expressed their recognition and support for the IGEM competition. We introduced our projects to stakeholders. During the communication process, stakeholders are very supportive of our projects. We think that our projects are conducive to human development and are projects that solve the problems facing the world. They put forward their own views. The project has helped us to look at bacterial resistance in a more professional and practical way. Unfortunately, the Zhejiang Provincial Department of Environmental Protection does not have a dedicated inspection department to check and control the amount of antibiotics and the number of resistant bacteria in the sewage. Stakeholders suggested that we go to the Shanghai Testing Center to find the answer. We are aware that the resistance genes of the new environmental pollution research will cause public and government attention to genetic pollution.

Interview industry expert


Zhang Wei


Senior Engineer of HuaDong Medicine Co., LTd.

Director of Microbial Technology Platform & Macromolecular Laboratory


HuaDong Medicine Company Limited.

      Questions for discussion:

Views on the problem of resistance gene contamination in the industry            

Project products have great prospects for use in the market

Problems that may be faced when put into use.


The problem that may be faced when put into use, which affects the direction of the dry and wet groups

Improvement of wet group light control device makes it more sensitive

Improvement of dry group light control device model, making it lower cost


When interviewing stakeholders, she mentioned that it is necessary to deal with resistance genes. We found that the pollution of domestic resistance genes has become more and more concerned so far, but no institution has set up resistance genes. Emission Standards. This poses a potential threat to the protection of the environment. With this, we can truly explain the significance of our project. We will call on the government and people to pay attention to the problem of resistance gene pollution.

In this interview, we realized that the final product of our project has great prospects for use in the field. Zhang Wei mentioned that if the drug resistance gene in the engineered bacteria is removed before the cell is discharged, it is valuable for solving the problem of resistance gene contamination, and to some extent, preventing the contamination of the resistance gene, in addition, the interest Relevant people have put forward suggestions for our project. If the actual application is to be carried out, the main problem is that in terms of cost, the cost mainly comes from two aspects, one is the hardware of the light control system, and the other is the cost of electricity. Electricity is primarily converted to light and heat, so further cooling systems are needed here. The equipment of our project requires careful consideration of the sensitivity of light and the occlusion of light. Therefore, we will improve the project itself for the sensitivity and cost of light. Additionally, she also suggested that we cango to the Biosafety Ethics Committee to discuss this issue.